ASTM F436 – 11 Standard Specification for Hardened Steel Washers
Abstract ASTM f436 pdf
This specification covers the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for hardened steel washers for use with fasteners having nominal thread diameters of ¼ through 4 in. These washers are intended for general-purpose mechanical and structural use with bolts, nuts, studs, and other internally and externally threaded fasteners. The types of washers covered here are: Type 1—washers made of carbon steel; and Type 3—washers made of weathering steel. Moreover, the styles of washers covered here are: circular washers, which are suitable for applications where sufficient space exists and angularity permits; beveled washers, which are square and rectangular with a beveled 1:6 surface for use with American Standard beams and channels; and clipped washers, which are circular or beveled for use where space limitations necessitate that one side be clipped. Steels to be used to manufacture the washers shall be produced by the open-hearth, basic-oxygen, or electric-furnace process. Each type and style of washer shall be suitably sampled, and should conform to specified values of chemical composition, Rockwell hardness, inside and outside diameter, thickness, and clipped width.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification covers the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for hardened steel washers for use with fasteners having nominal thread diameters of ¼ through 4 in. These washers are intended for general-purpose mechanical and structural use with bolts, nuts, studs, and other internally and externally threaded fasteners. These washers are suitable for use with fasteners covered in Specifications A325, A354, A449, and A490.
1.2 The washers are designated by type denoting the material and by style denoting the shape.
1.2.1 The types of washers covered are:
188.8.131.52 Type 1—Carbon steel.
184.108.40.206 Type 3—Weathering steel. Atmospheric corrosion resistance and weathering characteristics are comparable to that of steels covered in Specifications A588/A588M and A709/A709M. The atmospheric corrosion resistance of these steels is substantially better than that of carbon steel with or without copper addition. See 5.1. When properly exposed to the atmosphere, these steels can be used bare (uncoated) for many applications.
220.127.116.11 This specification provides for furnishing Type 3 to chemical composition or a Corrosion Index (CRI) of 6 or higher at the suppliers option.
1.2.2 The styles of washers covered are:
18.104.22.168 Circular—Circular washers in nominal bolt sizes ¼ through 4 in. suitable for applications where sufficient space exists and angularity permits.
22.214.171.124 Beveled—Beveled washers are square or rectangular, in nominal sizes 1/2 through 1½ in., with a beveled 1 to 6 ratio surface for use with American standard beams and channels.
126.96.36.199 Clipped—Clipped washers are circular or beveled for use where space limitations necessitate that one side be clipped.
188.8.131.52 Extra Thick—Extra thick washers are circular washers in nominal sizes 1/2through 1½ in., with a nominal thickness of 5/16 in. suitable for structural applications with oversized holes.
1.3 Terms used in this specification are defined in Terminology F1789 unless otherwise defined herein.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
Note 1—A complete metric companion to Specification F436M has been developedSpecification F436M; therefore no metric equivalents are presented in this specification.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)
A325 Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength
A354 Specification for Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners
A449 Specification for Hex Cap Screws, Bolts and Studs, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105/90 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength, General Use
A490 Specification for Structural Bolts, Alloy Steel, Heat Treated, 150 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength
A588/A588M Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel, up to 50 ksi [345 MPa] Minimum Yield Point, with Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance
A709/A709M Specification for Structural Steel for Bridges
A751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemical Analysis of Steel Products
B695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited on Iron and Steel
D3951 Practice for Commercial Packaging
F436M Specification for Hardened Steel Washers (Metric)
F606 Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, Direct Tension Indicators, and Rivets
F1136 Specification for Zinc/Aluminum Corrosion Protective Coatings for Fasteners
F1470 Practice for Fastener Sampling for Specified Mechanical Properties and Performance Inspection
F1789 Terminology for F16 Mechanical Fasteners
F2329 Specification for Zinc Coating, Hot-Dip, Requirements for Application to Carbon and Alloy Steel Bolts, Screws, Washers, Nuts, and Special Threaded Fasteners
G101 Guide for Estimating the Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Low-Alloy Steels
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