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Certain rubber articles, for example, seals, gaskets, hoses, diaphragms, and sleeves, may be exposed to oils, greases, fuels, and other fluids during service. The exposure may be continuous or intermittent and may occur over wide temperature ranges.
Properties of rubber articles deteriorate during exposure to these liquids, affecting the performance of the rubber part, which can result in partial failure.
This test method attempts to simulate service conditions through controlled accelerated testing, but may not give any direct correlation with actual part performance, since service conditions vary too widely. It yields comparative data on which to base judgment as to expected service quality.
This test method is suitable for specification compliance testing, quality control, referee purposes, and research and development work.
1.1 This test method covers the required procedures to evaluate the comparative ability of rubber and rubber-like compositions to withstand the effect of liquids. It is designed for testing: (1) specimens of vulcanized rubber cut from standard sheets (see Practice D3182), (2) specimens cut from fabric coated with vulcanized rubber (see Test Methods D751), or (3) finished articles of commerce (see Practice D3183). This test method is not applicable to the testing of cellular rubbers, porous compositions, and compressed sheet packing, except as described in 11.2.2.
1.2 ASTM Oils No. 2 and No. 3, formerly used in this test method as standard test liquids, are no longer commercially available and in 1993 were replaced with IRM 902 and IRM 903, respectively (see Appendix X1 for details).
1.3 ASTM No. 1 Oil, previously used in this test method as a standard test liquid, is no longer commercially available and in 2005 was replaced with IRM 901; refer to Table 1 and Appendix X3 for details.
1.4 ASTM No. 5 Oil was accepted into Specification D5900 as an industry reference material in 2010 and designated as IRM 905. The composition, and properties of this immersion oil were not changed and the data in Table 1 remains current. Refer to Appendix X4 for other details.
1.5 The specifications and properties listed in Table 1 for IRM 901, IRM 902, IRM 903, and IRM 905 are also maintained in Specification D5900.
1.5.1 The subcommittee responsible for maintaining Test Method D471, presently D11.15, shall review the data in Specification D5900 to ensure that it is identical to that which appears in Test Method D471. This shall be accomplished at the time of the 5 year review or more frequently when necessary.
1.6 Historical, technical, and background information regarding the conversion from ASTM No. 1, ASTM No. 2, and ASTM No. 3 Oils to IRM 901, IRM 902, and IRM 903 immersion oils is maintained in Practice D5964.
1.6.1 The subcommittee responsible for maintaining Test Method D471, presently D11.15, shall review the data in Practice D5964 to ensure that it is identical to that which appears in Test Method D471. This shall be accomplished at the time of the 5 year review or more frequently when necessary.
1.7 This test method includes the following:
Change in Mass (after immersion) Section 10
Change in Volume (after immersion) Section 11
Dimensional-Change Method for Water-Insoluble Liq-
uids and Mixed Liquids
Change in Mass with Liquid on One Surface Only Section 13
Determining Mass of Soluble Matter Extracted by the
Change in Tensile Strength, Elongation and Hardness
Change in Breaking Resistance, Burst Strength, Tear
Strength and Adhesion for Coated Fabrics
Calculation (of test results) Section 18
1.8 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
TABLE 1 Specifications and Typical Properties of IRM Reference Oils
Property IRM 901A IRM 902 IRM 903 IRM 905 ASTM Method
Aniline Point, °C (°F) 124 ± 1 (255 ± 2) 93 ± 3 (199 ± 5) 70± 1 (158 ± 2) 115 ± 1 (239± 2) D611
38°C (100°F) … 31.9–34.1 … D445
99°C (210°F) 18.12–20.34 19.2–21.5 … 10.8–11.9 D445
Gravity, API, 16°C (60°F) 28.8 ± 1 19.0–21.0 21.0–23.0 … D287
Viscosity-Gravity Constant 0.790–0.805 0.860–0.870 0.875–0.885 … D2140
Flash Point COC, °C (°F) 243(469) min 232 (450) min 163 (325) min 243 (469) min D92
Naphthenics, CN (%) 27 (avg) 35 min 40 min … D2140
Paraffinics, CP (%) 65 min 50 max 45 max … D2140
Pour Point, °C (°F) −12 (10) −12 (10) −31 (−24) −15 (5) D97
ASTM Color L 3.5 L 2.5 L 0.5 L 1.0 D1500
Refractive Index 1.4848 1.5105 1.5026 1.4808 D1747
UV Absorbance, 260 nm 0.8 4.0 2.2 … D2008
Aromatics, CA (%) 3 12 14 4 D2140
A Refer to Appendix X3. Table X3.1 reflects the differences in the properties between ASTM No. 1 Oil and IRM 901 for reference purposes.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)
D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D287 Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)
D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers–Tension
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D611 Test Methods for Aniline Point and Mixed Aniline Point of Petroleum Products and Hydrocarbon Solvents
D751 Test Methods for Coated Fabrics
D865 Test Method for Rubber–Deterioration by Heating in Air (Test Tube Enclosure)
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D1217 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Bingham Pycnometer
D1415 Test Method for Rubber Property–International Hardness
D1500 Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)
D1747 Test Method for Refractive Index of Viscous Materials
D2008 Test Method for Ultraviolet Absorbance and Absorptivity of Petroleum Products
D2140 Practice for Calculating Carbon-Type Composition of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin
D2240 Test Method for Rubber Property–Durometer Hardness
D2699 Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D3182 Practice for Rubber–Materials, Equipment, and Procedures for Mixing Standard Compounds and Preparing Standard Vulcanized Sheets
D3183 Practice for Rubber–Preparation of Pieces for Test Purposes from Products
D4483 Practice for Evaluating Precision for Test Method Standards in the Rubber and Carbon Black Manufacturing Industries
D4485 Specification for Performance of Engine Oils
D4806 Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D5900 Specification for Physical and Chemical Properties of Industry Reference Materials (IRM)
D5964 Practice for Rubber IRM 901, IRM 902, and IRM 903 Replacement Oils forASTM No. 1, ASTM No. 2, and ASTM No. 3 Oils
E145 Specification for Gravity-Convection and Forced-Ventilation Ovens
J300 Engine Oil Viscosity Classification
elevated temperature; fluid immersion; immersion oil; IRM reference oil; liquid immersion; reference fuel; reference oil; rubber articles; rubber products; service liquid; Accelerated aging/testing–rubber/related materials; Breaking strength/tenacity–rubber; Bursting strength–rubber; Change in length; Dimensional change; Elevated temperature tests–rubber; Elongation–rubber; Evaporation loss; Fluid immersion; Fuel oils; Fuels (test medias); Hardness tests; Immersion–rubber materials/applications; Liquids immersion–effect on rubber; Oils (test medias); Reference fuel; Rubber adhesion; Service liquid; Tear resistance; Tensile properties/testing–rubber/related materials; Testing methods–rubber; Volume change; Water displacement test