ASTM D1298 – 99(2005) Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
Significance and Use ASTM d1298 pdf
Accurate determination of the density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of petroleum and its products is necessary for the conversion of measured volumes to volumes or masses, or both, at the standard reference temperatures during custody transfer.
This test method is most suitable for determining the density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of low viscosity transparent liquids. This test method can also be used for viscous liquids by allowing sufficient time for the hydrometer to reach equilibrium, and for opaque liquids by employing a suitable meniscus correction.
When used in connection with bulk oil measurements, volume correction errors are minimized by observing the hydrometer reading at a temperature close to that of the bulk oil temperature.
Density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity is a factor governing the quality and pricing of crude petroleum. However, this property of petroleum is an uncertain indication of its quality unless correlated with other properties.
Density is an important quality indicator for automotive, aviation and marine fuels, where it affects storage, handling and combustion.
1.1 This test method covers the laboratory determination using a glass hydrometer, of the density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of crude petroleum, petroleum products, or mixtures of petroleum and nonpetroleum products normally handled as liquids, and having a Reid vapor pressure of 101.325 kPa (14.696 psi) or less.
1.2 Values are measured on a hydrometer at either the reference temperature or at another convenient temperature, and readings corrected to the reference temperature by means of the Petroleum Measurement Tables; values obtained at other than the reference temperature being hydrometer readings and not density measurements.
1.3 Values determined as density, relative density, or API gravity can be converted to equivalent values in the other units at alternate reference temperatures by means of the Petroleum Measurement Tables.
1.4 Annex A1 contains a procedure for verifying or certifying the equipment for this test method.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D323 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)
D1250 Guide for Use of the Petroleum Measurement Tables
D2500 Test Method for Cloud Point of Petroleum Products
D3117 Test Method for Wax Appearance Point of Distillate Fuels
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
E100 Specification for ASTM Hydrometers
MPMSChapter8.3 Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (ASTM Practice )
Institute of Petroleum Standards
IPStandardMethodsBoo Appendix A, Specifications – IP Standard Thermometers
ISO649-1 Laboratory glassware – Density hydrometers for general purpose – Part 1: Specification
API gravity; crude petroleum; density; hydrometer; Petroleum Measurement Tables; petroleum products; relative density; specific gravity;