ASTM A370 – 12 Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
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Ductile vs. Brittle Behavior—Body-centered-cubic or ferritic alloys exhibit a significant transition in behavior when impact tested over a range of temperatures. At temperatures above transition, impact specimens fracture by a ductile (usually microvoid coalescence) mechanism, absorbing relatively large amounts of energy. At lower temperatures, they fracture in a brittle (usually cleavage) manner absorbing appreciably less energy. Within the transition range, the fracture will generally be a mixture of areas of ductile fracture and brittle fracture.
The temperature range of the transition from one type of behavior to the other varies according to the material being tested. This transition behavior may be defined in various ways for specification purposes.
The specification may require a minimum test result for absorbed energy, fracture appearance, lateral expansion, or a combination thereof, at a specified test temperature.
The specification may require the determination of the transition temperature at which either the absorbed energy or fracture appearance attains a specified level when testing is performed over a range of temperatures. Alternatively the specification may require the determination of the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATTn) as the temperature at which the required minimum percentage of shear fracture (n) is obtained.
Further information on the significance of impact testing appears in Annex A5.
1.1 These test methods cover procedures and definitions for the mechanical testing of steels, stainless steels, and related alloys. The various mechanical tests herein described are used to determine properties required in the product specifications. Variations in testing methods are to be avoided, and standard methods of testing are to be followed to obtain reproducible and comparable results. In those cases in which the testing requirements for certain products are unique or at variance with these general procedures, the product specification testing requirements shall control.
1.2 The following mechanical tests are described:
Tension 5 to 13
Impact 19 to 28
1.3 Annexes covering details peculiar to certain products are appended to these test methods as follows:
Bar Products A1.1
Tubular Products Annex A2
Fasteners Annex A3
Round Wire Products Annex A4
Significance of Notched-Bar Impact Testing Annex A5
Converting Percentage Elongation of Round Specimens to
Equivalents for Flat Specimens Annex A6
Testing Multi-Wire Strand Annex A7
Rounding of Test Data Annex A8
Methods for Testing Steel Reinforcing Bars Annex A9
Procedure for Use and Control of Heat-Cycle Simulation Annex A10
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard.
1.5 When this document is referenced in a metric product specification, the yield and tensile values may be determined in inch-pound (ksi) units then converted into SI (MPa) units. The elongation determined in inch-pound gauge lengths of 2 or 8 in. may be reported in SI unit gauge lengths of 50 or 200 mm, respectively, as applicable. Conversely, when this document is referenced in an inch-pound product specification, the yield and tensile values may be determined in SI units then converted into inch-pound units. The elongation determined in SI unit gauge lengths of 50 or 200 mm may be reported in inch-pound gauge lengths of 2 or 8 in., respectively, as applicable.
1.6 Attention is directed to ISO/IEC 17025 when there may be a need for information on criteria for evaluation of testing laboratories.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)
ISO/IEC17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories
A623 Specification for Tin Mill Products, General Requirements
A623M Specification for Tin Mill Products, General Requirements [Metric]
A703/A703M Specification for Steel Castings, General Requirements, for Pressure-Containing Parts
A781/A781M Specification for Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use
A833 Practice for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Comparison Hardness Testers
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E8/E8M Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
E10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials
E18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials
E23 Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E110 Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Portable Hardness Testers
E190 Test Method for Guided Bend Test for Ductility of Welds
E290 Test Methods for Bend Testing of Material for Ductility
bend test; Brinell hardness; Charpy impact test; elongation; FATT (Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature); hardness test; portable hardness; reduction of area; Rockwell hardness; tensile strength; tension test; yield strength; Bend testing–metallic materials; Brinell hardness; Charpy impact test; Elongation–metallic materials; Forgings; Fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT); Generator materials; Hardness (indentation)–metallic materials; Impact resistance; Impact testing–Charpy; Mechanical analysis/testing; Pressure vessel steel; Railroad steel materials; Rockwell hardness; Seven-wire strand (tendon); Shipbuilding steel materials–specifications; Steel; Steel bars; Steel bolting materials; Steel chain; Steel pipe; Steel sheet; Steel sheet/strip; Steel sheet/strip/plate; Steel tube; Steel valves; Steel wire; Temperature tests–metals/alloys; Tensile properties/testing–steel; Tin mill products; Yield strength and yield point